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A similar confusion of expression may be noticed in the statement that man is a "compound of body and soul ". Man is not a body plus a soul — which would make of him two individuals ; but a body that is what it is (namely, a human body) by reason of its union with the soul.As a special application of the general doctrine of matter and form which is as well a theory of science as of intrinsic causality, the " soul " is envisaged as the substantial form of the matter which, so informed, is a human "body". It cannot be maintained, in the Thomistic system, that the "substantial union is a relation by which two substances are so disposed that they form one".In the general theory, neither "matter" nor "form", but only the composite, is a substance.In the case of man, though the " soul " be proved a reality capable of separate existence, the "body" can in no sense be called a substance in its own right.Though strictly speaking self-contradictory, the phrase expresses in a convenient form the abiding reciprocity of relation between these two "principles of substantial being". In Greek and in modern philosophy, as well as during the Patristic and Scholastic periods, another celebrated theory laid claim to pre-eminence. It is in a non-natural state of union, and longs to be freed from its bodily prison (cf. Plato has recourse to a theory of a triple soul to explain the union—a theory that would seem to make personality altogether impossible (see MATTER). Augustine, following him (except as to the triple-soul theory) makes the "body" and " soul " two substances; and man "a rational soul using a mortal and earthly body" (De Moribus, I, xxvii).Man is an individual, a single substance resultant from the determination of matter by a human form. But he is careful to note that by union with the body it constitutes the human being. Augustine's psychological doctrine was current in the Middle Ages up to the time and during the perfecting of the Thomistic synthesis. As further instances of Augustinian influence may be cited Alanus ab Insulis (but the soul is united by a spiritus physicus to the body); Alexander of Hales (union ad modum formæ cum materia ); St.
According to the common definition of the School, Man is a rational animal.The natural end of man may be considered from two points of view.Primarily, it is the procuring of the glory of God, which is the end of all creation.Aquinas avoids the difficulties and contradictions of the "two substance " theory and, saving the personality, accounts for the observed facts of the unity of consciousness.His doctrine : The particular creation of the soul is a corollary of the foregoing. 3 (in refutation of the opinion of Pythagoras, Plato and Origen — with whom Leibniz might be grouped as professing a modified form of the same opinion—the creation of souls at the beginning of time ).